Learning to handle Data

Contents Page

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An Introduction....

Using numerical information and making inferences is something that our brain does all the time...

Level C: an overview...

the objectives that you will have reached at the successful conclusion of this unit.

Level I : an overview...

the objectives that you will have reached at the successful conclusion of this unit.


10 tips for using this site to best effect


A suggested reading List

This is a selection of the best books in the library and in the bookshop. There is a short critique of each book to help in the selection process. The list is multidisciplinary.


Useful electronic reference sources

There is a vast range of material for statistics studies on the web but much of it assumes prior knowledge. This list suggests those sites which will either aid learning or offer interesting 'datasets' to practice with. The list is multidisciplinary.

The signpost page help you select the right statistical test for the job...


A comprehensive Glossary of 160 technical terms

An easy-to-use reference page when a definition of a word or phrase is needed (with hyperlinks to relevant pages where applicable)


A (very) short introduction to SPSS and Excel

...just to get you started....


Self-Assessement questions...blocks of 12 assorted questions designed to build your confidence!


On-Campus support

Where to go and who to speak to


The Biometrics questionnaire sheet

N.B. this data is anonymous and would only be used in workshop exercises



Each block contains explanations, examples and exercises

related to those topics discussed in your lectures and relevant to your course.

Level C (certificate):

Level C: STEP I Qualitative and Quantitative data, Scales of measurement, Bias, Types of Variable, What is a sample? Sampling methods

Level C: STEP 2 Presentation of data, Ranking , 'Picture scores', Bar charts, Histograms, Pie charts, 'Stem and Leaf' plots

STEP 2 (Linked page) Constructing Histograms and an excercise

STEP 2 (Linked page) Aspects of Central tendency. What actually is the 'Average'?. Dispersion

Level C: STEP 3 The Normal Distribution, working with 'Z'- scores, Standard Normal distributions

STEP 3 (Linked page) Histograms and SPSS (Dutch Elm Disease)

STEP 3 (Linked page) Another Histogram and SPSS example (Penguin eggs)

Interactive page: Normal distribution

Level C: STEP 4 Are two groups different?, Hypothesis testing, Probability and P-values, Ho and H1, Type 1 & 2 errors

STEP 4 (Linked page) Paired t-test, a note about standard error, an explanation of 'degrees of freedom'

STEP 4 (Linked page) Un-paired / un-matched t-tests

Level C: STEP 5 Nonparametric tests: The Mann-Whitney test for 2 independent data sets and The Wilcoxon test for matched-pairs

STEP 5 (Linked page) The Chi-squared test for Association (Nominal data) and Yate's correction. A short note about the 'G' test

Level C: STEP 6 More about frequency analysis, testing for normality, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality, the two-sample test

Level C: STEP 7 The concept of Correlation, Spearman's test

STEP 7 (Linked page) Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient test


SPSS data sets (active) Practice using many of the data sets used on this site

Level I (Intermediate):

Level I: STEP 1 Using and interpreting 'official statistics', handling misleading data

Level I: STEP 2 Simple two-variable Regression analysis. A note on testing the significance of a regression line

Level I: STEP 3 Introduction to ANOVA...Regression ANOVA's, One-way Independent-Groups ANOVA's post hoc tests:Tukeys. Kruskal-Wallis

Level I: STEP 4 Two-factor Independent Groups ANOVA's

Level I: STEP 4 (Linked page) Repeated Measures ANOVA's

Level I: STEP 5 ANalysis of COVAriance (ANCOVA), Multiple regression

Level I: STEP 6 Other aspects of Multivariate analysis

Level I: STEP 7 Principal Components Analysis, Cluster Analysis (Jaccard and Clarke matrices), Dendrograms

Level I: STEP 8 Discriminant analysis

Level I: STEP 9 Nearest Neighbour Analysis, Point Pattern Analysis, a note about Trend surface analysis



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